Problem was that I could not access Samba shares from my Linux box and OS X.
Looking at the ipconfig results I noticed NetBIOS over TCP/IP is not active. Checking the device in the control panel/Networks showed it was enabled.
After hours of searching for a solution and trying all kind of registry settings and security policies I decided to:
1. download the drivers of the adapter again
2. installed them
3. removed the network adapter in device management and let device management scan for hardware changes
4. The adapter was reinstalled and showed NetBIOS over TCP/IP active in ipconfig!
I then could map my samba shares no problem!